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Orthographies in Papua New Guinea through the Years
Ray Stegeman
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Abstract. I would like to present the use of non-English graphemes by many other SIL-PNG colleagues over the years. SIL-PNG has been at work documenting little-known languages in Papua New Guinea for over 60 years. The motivation for using certain graphemes, diacritics and other writing strategies has changed through the years, particularly related to choices made in nearby languages, related languages and the choices available through the dominant, colonial language of English.

It is particularly interesting how in recent years, linguists and translators have moved away from using diacritics and other unique graphemes, especially with the advent of cell phone use, so underdifferentiation in the alphabet has become commonplace, and its relative acceptance and efficacy will be the focus of my presentation.

I have done a systematic analysis of graphemic choices made for most SIL projects in PNG for the past 60 years. Unusual, non-English graphemes are the focus of that research, and a questionnaire was sent to current SIL members asking about their motivations for using or not using certain unusual graphemes. I wish to compare which uncommon graphemes are chosen to represent which phonemes and gain insight into their efficacy as well as their general acceptance among the people who use the orthographies.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36824/2018-graf-steg


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@ARTICLE{haji,
   AUTHOR = {Haji Omar, Asmah},
   TITLE = {{The Malay Spelling Reform}},
   JOURNAL = {Journal of Simplified Spelling Society},
   YEAR = {1989},
   VOLUME = {11},
   PAGES = {9--13},
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{bib152,
   AUTHOR = {Cahill, Michael},
   EDITOR = {Cahill, Michael and Keren Rice},
   TITLE = {{Non-linguistic Factors in Orthographies}},
   BOOKTITLE = {{Developing Orthographies for Unwritten Languages}},
   MAINTITLE = {{Publications in Language Use and Education}},
   PUBLISHER = {SIL International},
   ADDRESS = {Dallas, TX},
   YEAR = {2014},
   VOLUME = {6},
   PAGES = {9--25},
}

@BOOK{bib153,
   AUTHOR = {Cahill, Michael and Keren Rice},
   TITLE = {{Developing Orthographies for Unwritten Languages}},
   PUBLISHER = {SIL International},
   ADDRESS = {Dallas, TX},
   YEAR = {2014},
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{bib154,
   AUTHOR = {Grenoble, Lenore A. and Whaley, Lindsay J.},
   TITLE = {{Orthography}},
   BOOKTITLE = {{Saving Languages: An Introduction to Language Revitalization}},
   PUBLISHER = {Cambridge University Press},
   ADDRESS = {Cambridge},
   YEAR = {2004},
}

@BOOK{bib155,
   AUTHOR = {Gudschinsky, Sarah C.},
   TITLE = {{A Manual of Literacy for Preliterate Peoples}},
   PUBLISHER = {SIL},
   ADDRESS = {Ukarumpa},
   YEAR = {1973},
}

@THESIS{bib156,
   AUTHOR = {Karan, Elke},
   TITLE = {{Writing System Development and Reform: A Process}},
   SCHOOL = {Univ. of North Dakota},
   TYPE = {Master's thesis},
   YEAR = {2006},
}

@BOOK{bib157,
   AUTHOR = {Karan, Elke},
   TITLE = {{The ABD of Orthography Testing: Practical Guidelines}},
   PUBLISHER = {SIL},
   ADDRESS = {Dallas, TX},
   YEAR = {2014},
   VOLUME = {54},
}

@BOOK{bib158,
   AUTHOR = {Larsen, Robert E.},
   TITLE = {{Multidialectal Orthographic and Lexical Adjustments for Orokaiva}},
   PUBLISHER = {SIL},
   ADDRESS = {Ukarumpa},
   YEAR = {1977},
   VOLUME = {21},
   PAGES = {343--348},
}

@BOOK{bib159,
   AUTHOR = {Litteral, R. and Malone, Susan},
   TITLE = {{The Sounds of Your Language}},
   PUBLISHER = {Department of Education},
   ADDRESS = {Port Moresby},
   YEAR = {1991},
}

@BOOK{bib160,
   AUTHOR = {Malone, Susan},
   TITLE = {{Manual for Developing Literacy and Adult Education Programmes in Minority 
   Language Communities}},
   PUBLISHER = {UNESCO},
   ADDRESS = {Bangkok},
   YEAR = {2004},
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{bib161,
   AUTHOR = {Petterson, Robbie and Petterson, Debby},
   TITLE = {{Failures and Successes in Literacy in Gulf Province Schools}},
   BOOKTITLE = {{Conference of the Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea, Madang}},
   YEAR = {1994},
}

@BOOK{bib162,
   AUTHOR = {Pike, Kenneth L.},
   TITLE = {{Phonemics: A Technique for Reducing Languages to Writing}},
   PUBLISHER = {University of Michigan Publications},
   ADDRESS = {Ann Arbor},
   YEAR = {1947},
   VOLUME = {3},
}

@BOOK{bib163,
   AUTHOR = {Roberts, John R.},
   TITLE = {{Orthography Reform in Amele}},
   PUBLISHER = {SIL},
   ADDRESS = {Ukarumpa},
   YEAR = {2002},
}

@BOOK{bib164,
   AUTHOR = {Robinson, Clinton and Gadelii, Karl},
   TITLE = {{Writing Unwritten Languages: A Guide to the Process}},
   PUBLISHER = {UNESCO},
   ADDRESS = {Paris},
   YEAR = {2003},
   ADDENDUM = {\url{https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/bda5/26059b80037af03b0eaf4fec84ab696bf114.pdf}},
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{bib165,
   AUTHOR = {Schreyer, Christine},
   EDITOR = {Jones, Mari C. and Mooney, Damien},
   TITLE = {{Reflections on the Kala Biŋatuwã, a Three-Year-Old Alphabet from 
   Papua New Guinea}},
   BOOKTITLE = {{Creating Orthographies for Endangered Languages}},
   PUBLISHER = {Cambridge University Press},
   ADDRESS = {Cambridge},
   YEAR = {2017},
}

@UNPUBLISHED{bib166,
   TITLE = {{SIL Papua New Guinea. Annual Report}},
   YEAR = {2017},
}

@BOOK{bib167,
   AUTHOR = {Simons, Gary},
   TITLE = {{Principles of Multidialectal Orthography Design}},
   PUBLISHER = {SIL},
   ADDRESS = {Ukarumpa},
   YEAR = {1977},
   VOLUME = {21},
   PAGES = {325--342},
}

@BOOK{bib168,
   AUTHOR = {Smalley, William A. and others},
   TITLE = {{Orthography Studies: Articles on New Writing Systems}},
   PUBLISHER = {United Bible Societies},
   ADDRESS = {London},
   YEAR = {1964},
}

@INPROCEEDINGS{bib169,
   AUTHOR = {Snyder, David},
   TITLE = {{Orthographic Symbols in Papua New Guinea Languages}},
   BOOKTITLE = {{Conference of the Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea, Madang}},
   YEAR = {1994},
}

@ARTICLE{bib170,
   AUTHOR = {Spilioti, Tereza},
   TITLE = {{Graphemic Representation of Text Messaging: Alphabet Choice and Code 
   Switches in Greek SMS}},
   JOURNAL = {Pragmatics},
   YEAR = {2009},
   VOLUME = {19},
   PAGES = {393--412},
}

@UNPUBLISHED{bib171,
   AUTHOR = {Tomokiyo, Laura Mayfield},
   TITLE = {{Orthography Development}},
   YEAR = {2018},
   ADDENDUM = {Presentation \url{https://slideplayer.com/slide/13082277/}},
}

@ARTICLE{bib172,
   AUTHOR = {Venezky, Richard L.},
   TITLE = {{In Search of the Perfect Orthography}},
   JOURNAL = {Written Language and Literacy},
   YEAR = {2003},
   VOLUME = {7},
   PAGES = {139--163},
}

@PHDTHESIS{bib173,
   AUTHOR = {Whitehead, Carl R.},
   TITLE = {{A Reference Grammar of Menya, an Angan Language of Papua New Guinea}},
   SCHOOL = {University of Manitoba},
   YEAR = {2004},
}

@BOOK{bib273,
   EDITOR = {Clifton, John M.},
   TITLE = {{Studies in Melanesian Orthographies}},
   MAINTITLE = {{Data Papers on Papua New Guinea Languages}},
   PUBLISHER = {SIL},
   ADDRESS = {Ukarumpa},
   YEAR = {1987},
   VOLUME = {33},
}

@BOOK{bib274,
   EDITOR = {Sarvasy, Hannah and Forker, Diana},
   TITLE = {{Word Hunters}},
   PUBLISHER = {John Benjamins},
   ADDRESS = {Amsterdam},
   YEAR = {2018},
}

Ray Stegeman (2019), Orthographies in Papua New Guinea through the Years, in Proceedings of Graphemics in the 21st Century, Brest 2018 (Yannis Haralambous, Ed.), Brest: Fluxus Editions, 269–292

@INPROCEEDINGS{gla1-steg,
   AUTHOR = {Stegeman, Ray},
   EDITOR = {Haralambous, Yannis},
   TITLE = {{Orthographies in Papua New Guinea through the Years}},
   BOOKTITLE = {{Proceedings of Graphemics in the 21st Century, Brest 2018}},
   PUBLISHER = {Fluxus Editions},
   ADDRESS = {Brest},
   YEAR = {2019},
   PAGES = {269--292},
   DOI = {https://doi.org/10.36824/2018-graf-steg},
}